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The Stages Of Wound Healing
Wound healing after surgery is a complex process that involves 4 main overlapping physiological processes.
Hemostasis: The first stage of wound healing is hemostasis, which involves the formation of a blood clot to stop bleeding. Platelets, which are small blood cells, begin to aggregate at the site of the wound and release chemicals that help to form a clot. This prevents excessive blood loss and creates a barrier to prevent bacteria and other microorganisms entering the wound. Phagocytosis begins, Macrophages, Neutrophils and Eosinophils get to work engulfing and removing, Dead Cells, Bacteria, Yeast and other foreign bodies, removing them from the circulation.
Inflammation: The next stage of wound healing is inflammation, which begins within a few hours after the surgery and can last up to several days. During this stage, immune cells, such as white blood cells, are recruited to the site of the wound. These immune cells help to remove any foreign material and bacteria from the wound, and also help to remove damaged tissue. The inflammation stage is characterised by redness, swelling, and warmth at the site of the wound.
Proliferation: The proliferation stage begins within a few days after surgery and can last up to several weeks. During this stage, new tissue is formed to replace the damaged tissue. Cells called fibroblasts begin to produce collagen, which is a protein that provides strength to the wound. Blood vessels also begin to form, bringing nutrients and oxygen to the wound to support the healing process.
Remodelling: The final stage of wound healing is remodelling, which can last for several months or even years after surgery. During this stage, the new tissue that was formed during the proliferation stage is remodelled and strengthened. Collagen fibres are rearranged to increase the strength of the wound, and excess scar tissue is removed. This stage is important to create a strong, flexible scar that can withstand the stresses of normal daily activities.
Overall, wound healing after surgery is a complex and dynamic process that involves several physiological processes working together. The process is carefully regulated to ensure proper healing and to minimise the risk of infection or other complications.
This article has been written by Adey,
BSc MCs MHCPC MCSP
Having worked in professional sport for over 10 years, which included the Rugby Premership and The English Football League, Adey has a wealth of experience with dealing with injury and rehabilitation in the sports world. His desire, commitment, people skills and knowledge are why he has a great reputation in the clubs and teams he has been involved with. Alongside working for RecoverFit, Adey also works in the military as a physiotherapist.
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